This brief fact sheet looks at the international actors who are playing ever increasing roles in the Venezuela crisis. The alliances made by Venezuela and China as well as Venezuela and Russia are significant developments that could cause this crisis to grow into a global crisis. The part play by the United Nations with Venezuela is also considered here.

  • Venezuela and China have an alliance that will become increasingly more significant to the crisis.
  • China is Venezuela’s largest creditor. Last year Venezuela shipped China more than 330,000 barrels of oil per day for which very little revenue was gained to the struggling country.
  • In September the Chinese humanitarian aid ship, The Peace Ark, docked near Venezuelan waters with food and medical aid.
  • Venezuela and Russia have form an alliance that is a growing concern to many in the US.
  • Russia is another major trading partner with Venezuela since 2000. Russia exports large amount of military hardware to the country in return for oil. Much of the Venezuelan oil shipped to Russia in recent years has been resold on the world markets.
  • It is worth noting that both these allies, China and Russia, are veto holding members of the United Nations Security Council. Both have reason to see Maduro remain in power in Venezuela.
  • The United Nations has appointed a special envoy to deal with the massive Venezuelan refugee crisis.